Pediatric Summary Report Secondary Findings in Pediatric Subjects Non-diagnostic, excludes newborn screening & prenatal testing/screening P Current Version Rule-Out Dashboard Release History Status (Pediatric): Passed (Consensus scoring is Complete) Curation Status (Pediatric): Released Status (Adult): Incomplete (Consensus scoring is Incomplete) A

Condition: Hereditary fructose intolerance
Mode(s) of Inheritance: Autosomal Recessive
Actionability Assertion
Gene Disease Pairs(s)
Final Assertion
ALDOB0009249 (fructose intolerance, hereditary)
Assertion Pending
Actionability Rationale
This report was generated prior to the implementation of the process for making actionability assertions. An actionability assertion will be made, but may take time due to the substantial backlog of topics that need assertions.
Final Consensus Scoresa
Outcome / Intervention Pair
Nature of the
Gene Disease Pairs: ALDOB0009249
Morbidity associated with hereditary fructose intolerance / Dietary restriction of fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol
Organ failure from acute exposure to fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol / Avoidance of iatrogenic or acute exposure to fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol

Narrative Description of Evidence
1. What is the nature of the threat to health for an individual carrying a deleterious allele?
Prevalence of the Genetic Disorder
The prevalence of hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) has been extrapolated based on carrier frequencies of pathogenic variants to be approximately 1:18,000 – 1:34,000 in Europe and in multiple populations in the United States (All – 1:60,000; self-identified Middle Eastern – 1:38,000; self-identified African American – 1:205,000).
1 2 3
Clinical Features
(Signs / symptoms)
HFI is associated with an inability to metabolize fructose completely in the liver, intestine and kidneys. Clinical symptoms of HFI include gastrointestinal distress (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia), jaundice, bleeding tendency, renal tubular dysfunction and metabolic disturbances following dietary exposure to fructose, sucrose, or sorbitol. If large quantities of fructose are ingested, the patient may acutely develop lethargy, seizures, and/or progressive coma. Persistent fructose exposure can result in chronic growth restriction, failure to thrive, renal and hepatic failure, and risk of death.
1 3
Natural History
(Important subgroups & survival / recovery)
Symptoms of HFI become apparent during infancy at the time of weaning, when fructose or sucrose is introduced into the diet. Of note, some individuals have survived and been diagnosed in adulthood due to aversion to fructose-containing foods and a self-imposed fructose-free diet refined through trial and error. If identified and treated before permanent organ injury occurs, individuals with HFI have a normal life expectancy. Hepatomegaly may remain a persistent complication despite fructose restriction and resolution of initial hepatic fibrosis.
1 3
2. How effective are interventions for preventing harm?
Information on the effectiveness of the recommendations below was not provided unless otherwise stated.
Patient Management
Dietary restriction of fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol is the cornerstone of HFI treatment (see circumstances to avoid).
To establish the extent of disease and needs in an individual diagnosed with HFI, evaluation by the following specialists is recommended:
• Biochemical geneticist or pediatrician with an interest in metabolic disorders
• Dietician with experience in managing inherited metabolic diseases
• Hepatologist
• Nephrologist (Tier 4)
Daily supplementation with a sugar-free multivitamin is recommended to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, specifically the water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin C and folates, in the setting of reduced fruit and vegetable intake. (Tier 4)
Acute presentations should be managed symptomatically in a hospital setting, including intravenous glucose (dextrose) administration, supportive treatment of hepatic insufficiency (including fresh frozen plasma or exchange transfusion), and treatment of metabolic acidosis, if present. (Tier 4)
During any hospitalization, great care should be taken to avoid enteral or parenteral exposure to fructose, sorbitol, sucrose, sucralose, and polysorbate. Of particular note, a 24% sucrose solution (routinely administered to hospitalized neonates for minor procedures) should not be given to neonates known to have HFI. This recommendation is supported by case reports of reported accidental and iatrogenic fructose infusion-related serious organ failure events and/or deaths. (Tier 3)
Alerts should be placed in the patient's chart or medical record to notify practitioners to the HFI diagnosis and to the medical risks associated with exposures to fructose and related metabolites. The patient is advised to wear at all times a medically approved alert bracelet/necklace that provides information about the diagnosis of HFI. Hospital pharmacists should be utilized or parenteral medications, which should be cleared for use on a case-by-case basis. (Tier 4)
No information on surveillance was identified.
Circumstances to Avoid
Dietary restriction of fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol is necessary for the management of HFI, and should be strictly followed and maintained, especially during infancy. Currently, there are no specific guidelines regarding dietary fructose limits in any age group. In addition, HFI patients should avoid medicines and formulas in which fructose/sucrose may not be listed as a primary component but may be present (high risk concoctions include: syrups, enema solutions, some immunoglobulin solutions, and many infant and pediatric nutritional drinks). Evidence from 50 patients presenting with confirmed and symptomatic HFI shows that upon dietary restriction of fructose, the improvement observed is dramatic: vomiting and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved nearly immediately, bleeding tendency resolves in ~24 hours, renal tubular dysfunction can resolve in as little as 3 days, and clinical and biological findings, with the exception of hepatomegaly, resolved within a few weeks. Normal growth occurred in 2-3 years. In the 50 symptomatic patients and 5 patients who received treatment from birth, liver enlargement persisted in spite of treatment and resolution of fibrosis. (Tier 3)
3. What is the chance that this threat will materialize?
Mode of Inheritance
Autosomal Recessive
1 2 3
Prevalence of Genetic Mutations
In a large carrier screening study of multiple disorders in an ethnically diverse population in the United States, overall carrier frequency for an ALDOB pathogenic variant was 1:122 (~0.8%). Carrier frequency in persons self-identifying as Middle Eastern (n=388) was 1:97 (~1.0%) while the frequency for self-identifying African American population (n=678) was 1:226 (~0.4%), although these data may underestimate the prevalence in persons of non-European ancestry based on the variants examined. Carrier frequencies estimates in European countries have ranged from 0.8-1.3%. (Tier 3)
1 2
(Include any high risk racial or ethnic subgroups)
No information on penetrance among individuals identified molecularly was found.
The following clinical features were found at presentation in a case series of 50 patients with symptomatic HFI in childhood:
• Vomiting - 50/50 (100%)
• Hepatomegaly - 50/50 (100%)
• Anorexia - 27/50 (54%)
• Weight retardation - 23/49 (47%)
• Bleeding tendency - 23/50 (46%)
• Jaundice - 19/50 (38%)
• Edema and /or ascites - 15/50 (30%)
• Height retardation - 15/49 (31%)
• Aversion to sweet foods - 13/50 (26%)
• Shock, seizures - 8/50 (16%) (Tier 5)
Relative Risk
(Include any high risk racial or ethnic subgroups)
No information on the relative risk was identified.
No genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified for HFI; clinical severity and extent of organ damage appear to depend on an individual's nutritional environment. However, it has been suggested that tolerance of dietary fructose probably depends on an individual's residual enzyme activity. (Tier 4)
4. What is the Nature of the Intervention?
Nature of Intervention
The primary intervention for HFI is lifelong avoidance of enteral or parenteral exposure to fructose, sorbitol, sucrose, sucralose, and polysorbate.
5. Would the underlying risk or condition escape detection prior to harm in the settting of recommended care?
Chance to Escape Clinical Detection
The diagnosis of HFI may be made in an older individual who has, through a natural aversion to fruits and sweets, avoided fructose-containing food since childhood. A number of reported accidental and iatrogenic fructose infusion-related deaths have been reported in patients with undiagnosed or inadequately disclosed HFI. (Tier 3)
Description of sources of evidence:
Tier 1: Evidence from a systematic review, or a meta-analysis or clinical practice guideline clearly based on a systematic review.
Tier 2: Evidence from clinical practice guidelines or broad-based expert consensus with non-systematic evidence review.
Tier 3: Evidence from another source with non-systematic review of evidence with primary literature cited.
Tier 4: Evidence from another source with non-systematic review of evidence with no citations to primary data sources.
Tier 5: Evidence from a non-systematically identified source.

Gene Disease Associations
Disease Associations
Primary MONDO Identifier
Additional MONDO Identifiers
OMIM Identifier
Reference List
1. P Baker, L Ayres, S Gaughan, J Weisfeld-Adams. Hereditary Fructose Intolerance. 2015 Dec 17. In: MP Adam, HH Ardinger, RA Pagon, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2021. Available from:
2. Online Medelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM®. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE, HEREDITARY. MIM: 229600: 2016 May 23. World Wide Web URL:
3. Hereditary fructose intolerance. Orphanet encyclopedia,
4. Odievre M, Gentil C, Gautier M, Alagille D. Hereditary fructose intolerance in childhood. Diagnosis, management, and course in 55 patients. Am J Dis Child. (1978) 132(6):605-8.
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